A Study Of The Effectiveness Of Occupational Models In Countering Sex-Role Stereotypy In Attitudes Of Sixth-Grade Students
Date of Award
Doctor of Education (Educat.D.)
Problem. Sex-stereotyped attitudes, already highly developed by the time students reach the sixth grade, have limited or inhibited future educational and career options for both boys and girls.Purpose. The major purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of occupational models in countering sex-role stereotypy in attitudes of sixth-grade students. Pretest variations between sex stereotypy and the sex of students and between the condition of maternal employment and sex stereotypy were also examined.Procedures. The study was conducted in a Dade County, Florida, sixth-grade center which draws its population from six feeder school areas representing varying socio-economic levels. The sample totaled 159 students, 76 boys and 83 girls.In order to measure sex-role stereotypy, an attitude inventory, the Sex-stereotype Attitude Scale--Intermediate (SASI) was designed and validated. This inventory was used as the pretest and posttest instrument.Subjects were assigned to 12 cells in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design. Factors were: Treatment Group, three levels; Sex, two levels; Maternal Employment, two levels. Treatments for both experimental and control groups consisted of 10 occupational resource speakers presented over a two-week period. Identical occupations were presented to each group and were selected for inclusion on the basis of a majority (75% or greater) of one sex typically being employed in the occupations. Experimental Group speakers represented the nontraditional sex in the occupations. Control Group speakers represented the traditional sex in the occupations. Baseline Group members completed the pretest and posttest with only regularly scheduled academic activities intervening.Analysis of covariance was used to determine differences in adjusted posttest means. Correlations were used to determine the degree of common variance between pretest and posttest measures. Analysis of variance was used for analyses of pretest data.Findings. Experimental Group subjects showed significantly less sex stereotypy on posttest scores than subjects in the Control Group (.01) or Baseline Group (.05). There were no significant differences in the responses of Control Group subjects and Baseline Group subjects on posttest scores. When analyzed on inventory subclasses of career items and noncareer items, Experimental Group subjects showed significantly less stereotypy on posttest career item scores than subjects in the Control Group (.001) or Baseline Group (.05). There were no significant differences in the responses of the three treatment groups as measured by posttest noncareer item scores. Female subjects showed significantly less (.001) sex stereotypy on posttest scores than male subjects with female subjects in the Experimental Group achieving the lowest posttest adjusted means comparing all groups. There were no significant interactions of treatment group, sex, and maternal employment on instrument posttest scores.Analysis of pretest scores showed no significant differences between responses of subjects with working mothers and subjects with nonworking mothers. Female subjects showed significantly less (.001) sex stereotypy than male subjects on pretest scores. There were no significant interactions of treatment group, sex, and maternal employment on pretest scores.Recommendations. Recommendations included replication of the study with different populations, as results may vary with older or younger children or with specific ethnic groups, and further research presenting to low socio-economic level children models in status occupations to determine if such models could effectively raise career aspiration levels.
Fernandez, Esther Helen, "A Study Of The Effectiveness Of Occupational Models In Countering Sex-Role Stereotypy In Attitudes Of Sixth-Grade Students" (1980). Dissertations from ProQuest. 1134.