The Effects Of Feedback In Both Computer-Assisted Instruction And Programmed Instruction On Achievement And Attitude

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


This study was designed to investigate the relative effects of three types of feedback on performance and attitude in tutorial programs of the BASIC computer language using both computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and programmed instruction (PI) modes of presentation.The use of feedback for enhancing learning has been shown to be a significant variable in both computer-assisted instruction (Gilman, 1969) and programmed instruction (Campeau, 1968), although, to date, research findings on the effects of style of feedback on learning have been inconclusive (Biven, 1964; Gilman, 1969).The sample for this investigation consisted of 61 undergraduate student volunteers from the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, who were (1) randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: CAI and PI, and (2) further randomly assigned to one of three levels of feedback: Enriched feedback, Regular feedback, and No feedback. Regular feedback provided the student with information as to the correctness of his response while enriched feedback provided this information with additional statements consisting of personalized pronouns and expressions of praise. The no feedback level consisted of withholding any form of overt feedback.The students were all given five sessions of instruction on programming in BASIC, an attitude scale pre- and posttest and an achievement posttest on BASIC. An additional attitude scale was administered posttest to CAI students. The lessons and the achievement posttest were designed by the investigator and validated by experts in the BASIC language.Analysis of variance and covariance indicated that: (1) Both computer-assisted instruction and programmed instruction were equally effective in promoting (a) student achievement, and (b) student attitude toward the computer; (2) The three types of feedback were: (a) equally effective in promoting student attitude toward computer instruction and related instructional concepts; however, (b) regular feedback was significantly superior to the other two types of feedback in promoting achievement; (3) There was no interaction between modes of instruction and feedback with regard to (a) student achievement and (b) student attitude. There was no linear relation between attitude and achievement scores.Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that for programs of the tutorial type, regular feedback is most beneficial in facilitating achievement in a self-instructional CAI or PI program, and that computer-assisted instruction and programmed instruction are equally effective learning techniques. It can be concluded also that attitudes toward computer instruction and related instructional concepts are not affected significantly by either CAI or PI, or by enriched, regular, or no feedback.


Education, Educational Psychology

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