Title

The Effect Of Vocalization Through An Interval Training Program Upon The Pitch Accuracy Of High School Band Students

Date of Award

1981

Availability

Article

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Department

Music Education

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vocalization on the pitch accuracy skills of high school band students through an interval training program. The study utilized a teaching program that included the singing of intervals, instrumental playing of intervals, and a combination of the singing and instrumental playing of intervals. In addition, this study investigated whether or not this teaching program had an effect on the sight-reading abilities of high school band students. Also investigated were the effects of previous experiences in piano, private lessons, music theory, and choral music on the results of the interval training program.The study was conducted over a one month period during the spring semester of 1979. Three experimental groups and one control group were formed by involving four Fort Wayne, Indiana, area high school bands. The experimental groups each received an interval training program: School A--vocalization and instrumental playing of intervals; School B--Vocalization of intervals; School D--Instrumental playing of intervals. The control school, School D, continued its normal rehearsal procedures.The measuring instruments utilized were the Music Achievement Test--Test 3 "Pitch Recognition" portion by Richard Colwell, the Watkins-Farnum Performance Scale--Forms A and B, and the Interval Performance Test designed by the author. Also included was an author-designed questionnaire. All test were evaluated by the author and one assistant.Statistical procedures utilized were analysis of variance of gain or difference scores from pretest to posttest including the Scheffe test for differences of means. Effects of previous experiences were analyzed through t-tests for differences between independent groups. All work was done on an IBM computer.The conclusions drawn from the study were: (1) The vocalization of intervals is a factor leading to improved pitch accuracy skills of high school band students but only in the area of instrumental interval performance and not significantly. The school that only sang intervals for its treatment program had the smallest overall gain. (2) The instrumental playing of intervals is a factor leading to improved pitch accuracy skills of high school band students, but not significantly. In almost all posttests the group that played intervals had higher scores than the group that sang intervals. (3) The combination of the vocalization of intervals and the playing of intervals is not only a factor leading to improved pitch accuracy skills of high school band students, but is also a better method that the vocalization of intervals only or the instrumental playing of intervals only. The school that had the combination program of interval training had the greatest improvement in the area of interval performance and a significantly greater improvement than that produced by normal rehearsal procedures. This group consistently had higher means on the posttest than the other experimental schools, but not significantly. (4) The vocalization of intervals and/or the instrumental playing of intervals is not an improvement factor on the sight-reading skills of high school band students. (5) Previous experience in piano, private lessons, music theory, and choral music did not have undue effect on the outcomes of the study.It was recommended that this study be replicated with emphasis on the non-musical background students and lower scoring students and also at the middle school level. It was also recommended that other concomitants of music performance at the high school level be studied for a possible effect of instrumentalists vocalizing. These could be expression, rhythm, tone quality, ensemble intonation, and skill in playing a pitch steadily.

Keywords

Education, Music

Link to Full Text

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