Publication Date

2016-12-14

Availability

Open access

Embargo Period

2016-12-14

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)

Department

Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)

Date of Defense

2016-09-20

First Committee Member

Gecheng Zha

Second Committee Member

Hongtan Liu

Third Committee Member

Qingda Yang

Fourth Committee Member

Wangda Zuo

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to develop high fidelity numerical methods to investigate the complex aeroelasticity fluid-structural problems of aircraft and aircraft engine turbomachinery. Unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinates are solved to simulate the complex fluid dynamic problems in aeroelasticity. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used as a Riemann solver to capture shock waves in transonic and supersonic flows. An improved hybrid turbulence modeling, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES), is implemented to simulate shock induced separation and rotating stall flows. High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structures, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. A rotor/stator sliding interpolation technique is developed to accurately capture the blade rows interaction at the interface with general grid distribution. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are applied to consider the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI methodology. The accuracy and robustness of RANS, URANS and DDES turbulence models with high order schemes for predicting the lift and drag of the DLR-F6 configuration are verified. The DDES predicts the drag very well whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. DDES of a finned projectile base flows is conducted to further validate the high fidelity methods with vortical flow. The DDES is demonstrated to be superior to the URANS for the projectile flow prediction due to more accurate base vortex structures and pressure prediction. DDES of a 3D transonic wing flutter is validated with AGARD Wing 445.6 aeroelasticity experiment at free stream Mach number varied from subsonic to supersonic. The predicted flutter boundary at different free stream Mach number including the sonic dip achieves very good agreement with the experiment. In particular, the predicted flutter boundaries at the supersonic conditions match the experiment accurately. The mechanism of sonic dip is investigated. It is observed that the amplitude ratio of first bending mode to the second torsion mode is increased dramatically when the sonic dip occurs with a reversed trend to the flutter speed index boundary. The reduced torsional amplitude is attributed to the decreased pitching moment, which appears to be caused by the lift generation shifted toward mid-chord location. Simulation of supersonic fluid-structural interaction of a flat panel is performed by using DDES with high order shock capturing scheme. The panel vibration induced by the shock boundary layer interaction is well resolved by the high fidelity method. The dominant panel response agrees well with the experiment in terms of the mean panel displacement and frequency. The DDES methodology is used to investigate the stall inception of NASA Stage 35 compressor. The process of rotating stall is compared between the results using both URANS and DDES with full annulus. The stall process begins with spike inception and develops to full stall. The numbers of stall cell, and the size and propagating speed of the stall cells are well captured by both URANS and DDES. Two stall cells with 42% rotor rotating speed are resolved by DDES and one stall cell with 90% rotor rotating speed by URANS. It is still not conclusive which method is more accurate since there is no experimental data to compare, but the DDES does show more realistic vortical turbulence with more small scale structures. The non-synchronous vibration (NSV) of a high speed 1-1/2 stage axial compressor is investigated by using rigid blade and vibrating blade with fluid-structural interaction. An interpolation sliding boundary condition is used for the rotor-stator interaction. The URANS simulation with rigid blades shows that the leading edge(LE) circumferentially traveling vortices, roughly above 80% rotor span, travel backwards relative to the rotor rotation and cause an excitation with the frequency agreeing with the measured NSV frequency. The predicted excitation frequency of the traveling vortices in the rigid blade simulation is a non-engine order frequency of 2603 Hz, which agrees very well with the rig measured frequency of 2600 Hz. For the FSI simulation, the results show that there exist two dominant frequencies in the spectrum of the blade vibration. The lower dominant frequency is close to the first bending mode. The higher dominant frequency close to the first torsional mode agrees very well with the measured NSV frequency. To investigate whether the NSV is caused by flow excitation or by flow-structure locked-in phenomenon, the rotating speed is varied within a small RPM range, in which the rig test detected the NSV. The unsteady flows with rigid blades are simulated first at several RPMs. A dominant excitation NSV frequency caused by the circumferentially traveling tip vortices are captured. The simulation then switches to fluid structure interaction that allows the blades to vibrate freely. The simulation indicates that the structure response follows the frequency of the flow excitations that exist with the rigid blades. At least under the present simulated conditions, the NSV does not appear to be a lock-in phenomenon, which has the flow frequency locks in with the structure frequency. Overall, the high fidelity FSI methodology developed in this thesis for aircraft and engine fan/compressor aeroelasticity simulation is demonstrated to be accurate and robust. It has advanced the forefront of the state of the art.

Keywords

Fluid Structure Interaction; computational fluid dynamics; Turbomachinery; stall inception; nonsynchronous vibration

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