Publication Date

2007-12-11

Availability

Open access

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)

Department

Marine Biology and Fisheries (Marine)

Date of Defense

2007-10-31

First Committee Member

John W. McManus - Committee Chair

Second Committee Member

Peter W. Glynn - Committee Member

Third Committee Member

Michael C. Schmale - Committee Member

Fourth Committee Member

Donald L. DeAngelis - Committee Member

Fifth Committee Member

Bernhard Riegl - Committee Member

Sixth Committee Member

Esther C. Peters - Committee Member

Abstract

Understanding coral disease dynamics within the heterogeneous populations in which they act is critical for predicting how the structure of reefs may change as a result of enzootic or epizootic levels of these important sources of mortality. This work focused on combining field studies and the development and testing of a spatially-explicit, individual-based epizootiological computer model with the aim of gaining a greater understanding of the dynamics and impact of white plague, a significant source of mortality on reef-building corals in the Caribbean region. Field studies focused on the incidence and distribution of all sources of coral mortality, including suspect white plague in situ, at two locations; the Florida Keys (United States of America) and Little Cayman Island (Cayman Islands, British West Indies). Results indicated that in both regions disease was the most significant source of mortality during the monitoring time periods, and that suspect white plague type II in Cayman is likely contributing to major structural changes. In Florida, observations made during a mass bleaching event indicated that a significant relationship exists between bleaching severity and disease incidence, and that mortality during the event was largely the result of disease and not bleaching. The simulation model was developed using a long-term data set from Little Cayman, and results of calibration indicated that suspect white plague type II on these reefs is transmissible between colonies within a limited field and require a yearly input from an outside source, and that host susceptibility to infection is low and likely not variable among species. Parameters describing the distribution and composition of the coral population were varied, and results indicated a significant effect of colony density, aggregation, and mean size on the impact of disease. Scenario testing of various disease management strategies indicated that should local prevention measures be developed in the future, it is they, and not treatment, that will likely be the most effective in limiting the impact of disease.

Keywords

Epizootiological Modeling; Ecological Modeling; Coral Bleaching; Coral Disease Epizootiology; Coral Disease; Agent-based Modeling; Coral Disease Modeling

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