Perceived Facilitativeness In Early Life And Its Association With Later Counseling Experience And Self-Concept

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Counseling Psychology


Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceptions of facilitativeness in early most significant relationships and (1) perceptions of facilitativeness in later counseling relationships; (2) capacity to be facilitative; and (3) self-concept.Procedures. Subjects were 124 graduate and undergraduate student volunteers from a university population. Two pairs of counseling relationships were observed over a 10 week period. The first was with Masters level (ML) counselors and undergraduate clients, and the second was with undergraduate peer counselors. Client-perceived facilitativeness was measured by the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (RI) focused on early most significant relationships and on counselors at the third and eighth sessions. Judge-rated facilitativeness was measured by the Carkhuff Index of Gross Facilitative Interpersonal Functioning. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) was administered at the beginning and end of the study to all subjects. Statistical treatment of the data included simple correlations and t-tests, analysis of variance and covariance with alpha level set at .05.Findings. (1) A Correlation between perceptions of facilitativeness of the early most significant experience and perceptions of facilitativeness in later counseling experiences was not found as hypothesized. There was a positive correlation found between perceptions of Unconditionality in the early significant and early counseling relationships. (2) It was not concluded from the findings of this study that there is a correlation between persons' being perceived as facilitative and persons' perceptions of their early most significant and later perceived facilitative experiences. (3) There is a positive correlation between perceptions of early most significant relationships and self-concept. These findings should not be generalized beyond a similar population, i.e., university students in an analogue study.Summary and Conclusions. Although the findings were inconclusive, the results suggest that perceptions of early most significant relationships are a variable related to perceptions of early counseling experiences (in Unconditionality) and self-concept. Further investigation of the relationships studied using clinical populations is recommended.


Education, Guidance and Counseling

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