Title I Teachers' Perceptions Of Pull-Out And Pull-In Instructional Programs

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Teaching and Learning

First Committee Member

Jeanne Shay Schumm - Committee Chair


The purpose of this study was to identify through focus group interviews Title I teachers' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of pull-in-and pull-out programs for reading instruction for Title I students. Of particular interest was which model they perceived to be the most effective in meeting the needs of Title I students. Participants included 44 Title I teachers from eight elementary schools. Focus group interviews addressed four issues related to pull-in and pull-out reading models: facilitators and/or barriers, social and academic outcomes, roles and responsibilities of general education and Title I teachers, and conditions necessary for creating an effective model. A total of eight focus group interviews were conducted. Audiotaped data from the sessions were transcribed and analyzed. The constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) was used to code and categorize the data and summarize the findings.Analysis of the data revealed that the Title I teachers had strong reservations against the pull-in model currently in use, stating that they had tried it, but it didn't work. They stressed a desire to return to what had been the predominant model in the past, namely the pull-out model. While participants preferred a return to the pull-out reading model, they recognized the pros and cons of both settings. Their concerns dealt with classroom management and working conditions in the general education classroom and/or resource room, scheduling difficulties of Title I students, and fragmented instruction. They also indicated that academic progress and social acceptance were more enhanced in a setting where there were less distractions, more individualized instruction, and an environment where students felt confident and less intimidated. Title I teachers also indicated that their roles and responsibilities were ambiguous and time was needed for Title I teachers and general classroom teachers to clarify their roles and responsibilities and to determine what was necessary for the Title I student to succeed. Participants stated that communication and cooperation were the primary conditions necessary for creating an effective Title I program. They also stated that for a Title I program to be effective, teachers must be able to proclaim what has worked for them and what has not worked, and to share their perceptions with those responsible for making Title I program and policy changes.


Education, Special; Education, Curriculum and Instruction

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