The effect of the Yamaha Music In Education keyboard instructional approach on the musical and nonmusical outcomes of middle school students

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Music Education

First Committee Member

Stephen Zdzinski - Committee Chair


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Yamaha Music In Education (MIE) keyboard instructional approach on selected musical and nonmusical outcomes of middle school students. One hundred and thirty-four middle school students from Miami, Florida were involved in the study. Experimental group participants (n = 68) received the MIE keyboard instructional approach, and were compared to a control group (n = 66) with no music instruction. The study was implemented for the academic school year from November 2004 to April 2005.Musical outcomes were reflected in students' music achievement and music attitudes. Music achievement was measured using the Iowa Tests of Music Literacy (ITML) (Gordon, 1991), and music attitude was evaluated through the Instrumental Music Attitude Inventory (IMAI) (Fortney, 1992). The nonmusical outcomes included students' motivation and self-esteem, using the Achievement Motivation Profile (AMP-Junior Form) (Mandel, Friedland, & Marcus, 2006), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981) respectively. Report card grades in math and reading, as well as school attendance records were obtained from the participating school to measure students' academic achievement and school attendance.The study addressed two research questions. The first research question asked what the effects of treatment (MIE keyboard approach), at-risk status, and gender were on musical and nonmusical outcomes. The second research question asked what effect did the combination of the MIE keyboard program, at-risk status, and gender have on the component measures contained in the musical and nonmusical outcomes composites.Preliminary descriptive and correlational analyses were carried out. Two multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) models were conducted to address the research questions. Pretest scores and grade were used as covariates in the analyses, with treatment, gender, and at-risk status as independent variables. Results from the MANCOVA indicated a statistically significant (p < .05) two-way interaction of treatment and at-risk status on the musical outcome composites and in motivation.


Education, Music; Education, Secondary

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