Continuing in band: Marketing to incoming high school students

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Music Education

First Committee Member

Edward P. Asmus - Committee Chair


Instrumental music teachers at the high school level face challenges in maintaining sufficient enrollment to ensure quality music ensembles. This study examined recruitment strategies employed by high school band directors to attract students from the middle school band. The marketing model of the Seven P's was used to gauge band director recruitment strategies. The seven P's are product, price, place, promotion, people, process, and proof. The research goals were to examine (1) the level of planning and evaluation of band director recruitment strategies, (2) the marketing mix of the seven P's employed by band directors, (3) the differences in the seven P marketing mix between superior and less superior band directors, (4) the regional differences in the marketing mix, and (5) interactions of recruitment type and region. A review of literature was conducted which examined recruitment materials available to music educators, marketing theory, and educational marketing used by music units at the collegiate level. The two-part Light Band Marketing Survey was sent to a randomly selected national sample of traditional public high schools, and to all members of the Florida Bandmasters' Association teaching public high school. Participants returned 11.8% of the surveys. Both superior and less superior band recruiters indicated that they used an informal level of planning and evaluation of the recruitment process. Few differences were found among the seven traditional marketing P's. There was no difference found in the recruiting strategies used by superior and less superior band recruiters. Regional marketing mix differences were only found for an East/West division of the United States. Less superior band directors in the West division responded more favorably to people, promotion, and proof. The factor analysis of items in Section 2 of the LBMS identified six underlying constructs that differ from the traditional marketing mix. The new factors are: program, image, communication, assessment, subsidy, and outer rewards, or PICASO. Recommendation for the implications of the PICASO method and more efficient sampling strategies are discussed.


Education, Music; Education, Secondary

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