School routines and broken school windows: Race, ethnicity, and student victimization

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)



First Committee Member

Tamela McNulty Eitle - Committee Chair


This dissertation study investigated the multilevel relationships between students' school routines, a school's physical context, and student victimization at school. This research study continued and extended previous studies by examining the role of a school's physical disorder, students' routine activity and lifestyle, and immigration status with the property and violent victimization of public school students.At the student level, limited studies examined the association between a student's school routines (i.e., classroom related, club, sports participation, and misbehavior) and being victimized at school. I hypothesized that a student's routines, activity, or behavior were related with his or her odds of being a victim of a crime while at school. In addition, I suggested that racial and ethnic minorities and immigrant students were more vulnerable to school crime.At the school level, few studies investigated the relationship between physical characteristics of the school (i.e., disorder and security), and student victimization. Symbols of school disorder (e.g., broken windows, litter, and etc) may indicate the school's inability to protect and maintain a safe educational environment for its students. I argued that a school's physical contextual characteristics such as symbols of physical disorder and level of security and guardianship were factors in a student's vulnerability to be victimized while on school grounds.The data for my dissertation research were from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). The ELS data was a longitudinal study administered by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the United States Department of Education. ELS was "designed to monitor the transition of a national sample of young people as they progress from tenth grade through high school and on to postsecondary education and/or the world of work." (NCES, 2004, p. 7). These data included information of the experiences and backgrounds of students, parents, teachers, and schools. This dissertation utilized the base year nationally represented stratified sample, of the 7,990 students who attended the 578 public schools in the ELS:2002 study.


Sociology, General

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