Balinese gender wayang performance technique: A pedagogical system for the non-Balinese scholar

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.)


Music Performance

First Committee Member

Ney Gabriel Rosauro - Committee Chair


Balinese gender wayang (shadow play music) performance technique was investigated using information acquired through traditional oral transmission. This information was confirmed by analysing video footage of the Balinese gender wayang master, Bapak I Wayan Loceng, of the village of Sukawati, Gianyar district, Bali, Indonesia, who passed away in 2006.Preliminary performance issues were examined including instruments, mallets, performance setting, seating and posture, and mallet grip. Gender wayang playing technique was examined in terms of physical movements, which were organized into categories including the basic stroke, basic dampening, interval movements, special techniques and mallet trajectory. This was done by analysing transcriptions of traditional repertoire. Technical categories were ordered according to a logical pedagogical progression.Balinese music pedagogy was investigated, including traditional maguru panggul (teaching with the mallet) pedagogy, Loceng's adaptations to traditional Balinese pedagogy, and recommendations for gender wayang pedagogy outside Bali. Issues of transcription and notation were investigated. The polos part of the traditional piece, Tulang Lindung, was transcribed into Western notation and analysed in detail with an emphasis on performance technique, musical construction and pedagogy.Exercises were developed in each technical category to aid in technical development. Results were organised according to a logical pedagogical progression and presented as a comprehensive guide to assist in the development of the non-Balinese gender wayang musician.


Music; Education, Music

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