A comparison between the back, squat and free style lifting techniques

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Industrial Engineering

First Committee Member

Tarek M. Khalil, Committee Chair


The stoop, squat and free style lifting techniques were compared with respect to different kinetic and kinematic variables. Displacements and accelerations of the ankle, knee and trunk; torques at the L5-S1 level and knee; EMG of the lumbar paraspinals and quadriceps; area of sway and time to complete the lift were the variables studied. The effect of load weight and load position was also studied. A repeated measures design of experiment was adopted. Results show that there are significant differences between the three techniques. Each one of the lifting methods minimizes on a different set of variables. Load weight and position also have a significant effect on several of the parameters that were studied. A table was constructed to provide a comparison between the three techniques (with the two load weights and load positions) based on the parameters that were investigated. It was concluded that while it is possible to select a technique that would minimize on a particular criterion, it is not fully justified to select a technique that is considered a "safe lifting technique" for all people and all configurations of loading on all joints of the body.


Engineering, Biomedical; Engineering, Industrial

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