The development of a spectrum analytic measure of parental involvement

Date of Award




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)



First Committee Member

Daryl Greenfield, Committee Chair


The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Parent Involvement and Activities Inventory (PIAI), a qualitative parent-report instrument of parental involvement activities. The second purpose was to compare the psychometric properties of the PIAI with the Parents' Involvement on All Types of Activities survey (PARDOALL, Epstein & Salinas, 1993, a popular quantitative instrument. The PIAI was created to assess the (1) parental involvement processes in the home, school and community, and (2) to provide parents with immediate feedback about ways to increase the quality of involvement.The scale development process included focus groups with social workers, elementary school teachers and 18 African American parents of young children. Input was also derived from a Parental Involvement Coordinator and a university researcher. After various revisions were made to the PIAI data collection was conducted. Eighty-two caregivers of children in preschool, kindergarten or first-grade were administered the PIAI the PARDOALL and a demographic survey.Correlational and factor analytic methods were used to analyze the PIAI and its two underlying factors: In-Home Involvement and In-School Involvement. Validity and reliability of the PIAI were established for the complete instrument and the identified factors. The PARDOALL was found to be reliable, but validity could not be substantiated. The theoretical and practical implications for families, educators, school psychologists and researchers were discussed.


Education, Tests and Measurements; Education, Early Childhood; Sociology, Individual and Family Studies; Psychology, Psychometrics

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