Publication Date



Open access

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Kinesiology and Sport Sciences (Education)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Arlette Perry

Second Committee Member

Gianluca Del Rossi

Third Committee Member

Jeremy Jordan

Fourth Committee Member

Carol-Anne Phekoo


Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess certified athletic trainers' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and satisfaction, following a continuing professional education (CPE) program offered in either a traditional, lecture-oriented format or an interactive format addressing adult learning strategy preferences. Design: We used a pre-test, post-test experimental design with comparison groups utilizing stratified randomization. Setting: The CPE program was held in the University wellness center classrooms. Subjects: Forty-six certified athletic trainers participated. Measurements: After determination of learning strategy preferences, a 30 item multiple-choice exam was administered prior to, immediately after, and one-month following the CPE program to determine level of knowledge acquisition and retention. Participant self-reported level of satisfaction was assessed with a questionnaire immediately following the CPE program. Results: A significant main effect for treatment (F2,70 = 6.02, p < 0.004) was observed indicating that subjects in the lecture format CPE program acquired and retained more knowledge than subjects in the interactive format regardless of learning strategy preference. There was no significant loss in knowledge observed one-month following the CPE program regardless of learning strategy preference or treatment (lecture or interactive CPE format). No significant differences in level of satisfaction by treatment (lecture or interactive CPE format) or by learning strategy preference (navigators, problem-solvers, or navigators) were noted; however, 13 (28.3%) reported an excellent level of satisfaction (mean satisfaction score of 4.0) and 31 (67.4%) reported an above average level of satisfaction (mean satisfaction scores of 3.0 to 3.88). Conclusions: Our data indicate that lecture format CPE programs may be optimal for knowledge acquisition and retention, independent of learning strategy preference. Knowledge retention did not decrease regardless of learning strategy preference or CPE format and actually demonstrated a further increase using the lecture format. Although our data suggest that participant satisfaction is independent of learning strategy preference and CPE format, the homogeneity of responses made it difficult to detect any relationship with regard to learning style preference and satisfaction.


Andragogy; Adult Education; Life-long Learning; Skill Acquisition; Skill Retention; Program Evaluation