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Publication Date



UM campus only

Embargo Period


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Music Education and Music Therapy (Music)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Stephen F. Zdzinski

Second Committee Member

Edward P. Asmus

Third Committee Member

Don D. Coffman

Fourth Committee Member

Corin Overland

Fifth Committee Member

Marilyn Neff


Even today, e-learning in Malaysia is used for facilitating teaching, not for students’ learning in public school subjects, including music. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of e-learning in learning music theory and music appreciation courses in the Malaysian secondary school curriculum. Differences between learning methods (e-learning and conventional classroom teaching) and music achievement were investigated. Also investigated were relationships among research learning methods, gender, music achievement, students’ attitude to learn music, technological attitude, and students’ technological backgrounds. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine potential predictors of music achievement and attitude to learn music. Pre/Post-tests and attitudinal questionnaires were administered to two hundred and seventy-one Form One (Grade 7) students during the seven-week treatment period. There was a significant difference between music achievement and learning methods. The results also showed that there were strong relationship between students’ music achievement and learning methods, and a moderate relationship between students’ technological attitude and students’ attitude to learn music. Learning methods predicted students’ music achievement, and students’ technological attitude predicted students’ attitude to learn music.


e-learning in music education; computer in music education; effectiveness of e-learning; e-learning in Malaysian music education; ICT in music education; ICT in Malaysian education