Publication Date



Open access

Embargo Period


Degree Type

Doctoral Essay

Degree Name

Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA)


Studio Music and Jazz (Music)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Rachel L. Lebon

Second Committee Member

Lawrence Lapin

Third Committee Member

Kathryn I. Reid

Fourth Committee Member

Trudy Kane


Successful performance as a vocalist requires much time and dedication, as does becoming a successful instrumentalist. Learning how to effectively Phrase, Articulate, and Rhythmically Interpret melodies authentically as a Jazz Vocalist, rather than as a musician who can merely sing a melody entails a great work ethic as well as discipline. In researching the topic, authoritative opinions and studies were examined with the intention of discovering whether similarities exist between vocalists and instrumentalists and to what extent. This document researches the differences in phrasing, articulation and rhythmic interpretation among wind players and vocalists by discussing the techniques used when approaching tunes. A questionnaire was emailed to various artists and educators that are wind players as well as vocalists to determine the artists’ approaches to jazz phrasing, articulation techniques, and rhythmic interpretation utilized in effectively mastering the art. “Doublers” that is, wind players who also sing, and singers who also play wind instruments, were also sent questionnaires. Informal email interviews and discussions with vocal and instrumental performers were conducted to determine which phrasing and articulation techniques they found to be the most useful when performing. This document is intended to be a resource that enables musicians and future music educators to become more knowledgeable about similarities and differences that such crossing over entails, while teaching with sensitivity and awareness towards individual weaknesses and strengths.


Instrumental Approaches; Vocal Approaches; Phrasing; Articulation; Rhythmic Interpretation; Doublers