Publication Date



Open access

Embargo Period


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Educational and Psychological Studies (Education)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Lydia P. Buki

Second Committee Member

Guerda Nicolas

Third Committee Member

Etiony Aldarondo

Fourth Committee Member

Carlos I. Perez Benitez

Fifth Committee Member

Rosa M. Gonzalez-Guarda


In this study, I conducted an empirically-based adaptation of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5; Weathers, Blake, Schnurr, Marx, & Keane, 2013b) for Spanish-speaking Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP). The sample utilized cross-cultural equivalence guidelines posited by the Cultural Equivalence Model (Canino & Bravo, 1994; Flaherty et al., 1988) to achieve content, semantic, and technical equivalence between the Spanish adaptation of the CAPS-5 and its original English version. This process entailed seven steps: (a) the forward translation by a native Spanish speaker, (b) revision by a panel of bilingual Latino mental health professionals (n = 3), (c) revision by a community sample of Latinos with LEP via focus groups (n = 19), (d) a panel revision of the changes suggested by the community sample, (e) pre-testing with a clinical sample of Latinos with PTSD (n = 4), (f) a panel revision of the changes suggested by the clinical sample, and (g) backtranslation by a native English speaker. Altogether, results pointed to the need to reduce the literacy level of the measure. Modifications included using colloquial wording when possible, reducing the level of abstractness of the items, utilizing visual aids to explain concepts such as timeframes and percentages, reducing the length of prompts to reduce the cognitive burden on interviewees’ working memory, using the simple past tense instead of the present perfect tense, and adding cultural considerations to the CAPS-5 instruction guidelines.


cultural adaptation; PTSD; assessment; CAPS; Spanish; Latinos