Publication Date



Open access

Embargo Period


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Physics (Arts and Sciences)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Rafael I. Nepomechie

Second Committee Member

Orlando Alvarez

Third Committee Member

Chaoming Song

Fourth Committee Member

Rodrigo A. Pimenta


Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to be physical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains corresponding to two choices of integrable boundary conditions have the symmetries Uq(Bn) and Uq(Cn), respectively. The deformation of Cn is novel, with a nonstandard coproduct. We find a formula for the Dynkin labels of the Bethe states (which determine the degeneracies of the corresponding eigenvalues) in terms of the numbers of Bethe roots of each type. With the help of this formula, we verify numerically (for a generic value of the anisotropy parameter) that the degeneracies and multiplicities of the spectra implied by the quantum group symmetries are completely described by the Bethe ansatz.


Bethe ansatz; Integrable model; Spin chain; Singular; Boundary condition