Publication Date



Open access

Embargo Period


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Music Education and Music Therapy (Music)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Carlos R. Abril

Second Committee Member

Don D. Coffman

Third Committee Member

Stephen F. Zdzinski

Fourth Committee Member

Corin T. Overland

Fifth Committee Member

Marilyn J. Neff


The purpose of this study was to determine the state of music education in the Basic General Public schools in Ecuador from the perspective of the school administrator. A survey distributed via e-mail to 1,800 school administrators yielded a response rate of 27.4%. Administrators were asked to indicate the degree to which a list of music learning outcomes and broad educational outcomes in music were being met in current and ideal conditions. Results of the survey revealed that only a small percentage of the respondents (N = 475) offered music instruction at their schools. However, a further analysis showed significant differences between current and ideal conditions, which implies that administrators believe that improvements in a number of areas of music education are possible. When asked to indicate the degree to which numerous factors impacted their music programs, administrators indicated that budget and the lack of music teachers were negatively impacting music instruction. These responses were corroborated and expanded upon in two open-ended questions, which revealed that policy, resources, budget for music teachers, and parents and community were factors negatively impacting music education in schools.


music education; policy; status of; reform