Publication Date



Open access

Embargo Period


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Educational and Psychological Studies (Education)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Soyeon Ahn

Second Committee Member

Cengiz Zopluoglu

Third Committee Member

Debbiesiu Lee

Fourth Committee Member

Batya Elbaum

Fifth Committee Member

Nicholas D. Myers


The current study compared the effect of geomin versus target rotation criteria on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with correlated factors and a large and complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Comparing the performance of these two rotation criteria was important because geomin has been viewed as an easy to use mechanical rotation criterion that provides little to no opportunity to incorporate a priori measurement theory into the complexity function while target has been viewed as a less easy to use non-mechanical rotation criterion that requires the user to incorporate at least some a priori substantive measurement theory into the complexity function. A Monte Carlo study manipulated rotation criterion, factor correlation, communality, and sample size. Bias and variability in the rotated pattern matrix and in the factor correlation matrix were measured. Results indicated that geomin generally performed better than target. With regard to the accuracy of the rotated pattern matrix, target outperformed geomin only when the number of targets was large. With regard to the stability of the rotated pattern matrix, geomin conditions performed better than target conditions. With regard to the accuracy of factor correlation matrix, target performed better than geomin only when the factors were orthogonal. With regard to the stability of factor correlation matrix geomin performed better than target. Further, revised geomin generally outperformed default geomin. Findings provide general support for using a revised version of geomin rotation over target rotation in large pattern matrices especially with correlated factors.


exploratory factor analysis; measurement model; rotation criterion; geomin rotation; target rotation; correlated factors