Publication Date



Open access

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Industrial Engineering (Engineering)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Shihab Asfour - Committee Chair

Second Committee Member

Sohyung Cho - Committee Member

Third Committee Member

Murat Erkoc - Committee Member

Fourth Committee Member

Arzu Onar - Committee Member

Fifth Committee Member

Matthew J. Lynn - Outside Committee Member


This study investigates the tool wear of advanced PVD TiALN/TiN multilayer coated end mill inserts when dry and semi-dry machining 4340 low alloy medium carbon steel. A factorial design of experiment setup consisting of two levels of speed, three levels of feed, two levels of depth of cut, and two levels of cutting conditions (semi-dry and dry) was used for the study. The combination of cutting conditions that gave the best response for different components of cutting force, cutting power, surface roughness and tool life were determined using MANOVA & ANOVA analysis and Tukey comparison of means test using MINITAB statistical software package. From a study of the Energy Dispersive X ray (EDX) analysis and primary back scatter images obtained from the worn out crater surface of the insert, it was observed that diffusion wear prevailed under both dry and semi-dry machining conditions. A tool life model was developed using multiple regression analysis within the range of cutting conditions selected. A model for flank wear progression was also developed using mixed effects modeling technique using S Plus statistical software package. This technique takes into account between and within work piece variations during end milling and produces a very accurate model for tool wear progression. This is the first time application of the mixed effects modeling technique in metal cutting literature.


Carbide Inserts; Semi-dry Machining; Dry Machining; End Milling; Mixed Effects Model; EDX Analysis