Publication Date



Open access

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Biomedical Engineering (Engineering)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Jean-Marie Parel

Second Committee Member

Fabrice Manns

Third Committee Member

Giovanni Gregori

Fourth Committee Member

Jorge Bohorquez

Fifth Committee Member

Arthur Ho

Sixth Committee Member

Peter Milne


The goal of this project is to obtain quantitative images of the lens and the ciliary body to validate EVAS-II (Second generation Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator). To accomplish this goal it was necessary to develop methods, instrumentation and image processing techniques to acquire 3D images in EVAS-II, using UBM (Ultrasound Bio Microscope), and to apply these techniques to non-human primate eyes. The lens studies included measurement of speed of sound in the lens to reconstruct accurate images of the lens, development of instrumentation to measure the un-distorted lens shape and development of a mathematical model to quantify the whole lens shape. Speed measurements showed that the speed of sound exhibits a gradient profile in the equatorial plane, similar to refractive index and protein distributions in the lens. Lens shape measurements showed that the UBM can be used to accurately measure thickness, diameter, cross-sectional area, volume and surface area of the lens. The ciliary body studies included development of instrumentation and algorithms to obtain 3-D images of tissue in EVAS-II and development of methodology to quantify ciliary body movement during stretching. Studies showed that the accommodation process in young baboon eyes in EVAS-II is comparable to the in vivo process in rhesus monkeys. The UBM can be used to obtain reliable quantitative information about the lens and the ciliary body. 3-D UBM enables monitoring of ciliary body motion of the entire accommodative apparatus.


EVAS; Lens Stretcher; Presbyopia; Accommodation; Speed Of Sound; Fourier Lens Model