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Publication Date



UM campus only

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PHD)


Industrial Engineering (Engineering)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Shihab Asfour

Second Committee Member

Sohyung Cho

Third Committee Member

Murat Erkoc

Fourth Committee Member

Arzu Onar

Fifth Committee Member

Moiez Tapia


In a fully automated manufacturing environment, instant detection of condition state of the cutting tool is essential to the improvement of productivity and cost effectiveness. In this paper, a tool condition monitoring system (TCM) via machine learning (ML) and machine ensemble (ME) approach was developed to investigate the effectiveness of multisensor fusion when machining 4340 steel with multi-layer coated and multi-flute carbide end mill cutter. Feature- and decision-level information fusion models utilizing assorted combinations of sensors were studied against selected ML algorithms and their majority vote ensemble to classify gradual and transient tool abnormalities. The criterion for selecting the best model does not only depend on classification accuracy but also on the simplicity of the implemented system where the number of features and sensors is kept to a minimum to enhance the efficiency of the online acquisition system. In this study, 135 different features were extracted from sensory signals of force, vibration, acoustic emission and spindle power in the time and frequency domain by using data acquisition and signal processing modules. Then, these features along with machining parameters were evaluated for significance by using different feature reduction techniques. Specifically, two feature extraction methods were investigated: independent component analysis (ICA), and principal component analysis (PCA) and two feature selection methods were studied, chi square and correlation-based feature selection (CFS). For various multi-sensor fusion models, an optimal feature subset is computed. Finally, ML algorithms using support vector machine (SVM), multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP), radial basis function neural network (RBF) and their majority voting ensemble were studied for selected features to classify not only flank wear but also breakage and chipping. In this research, it has been found that utilizing the multisensor feature fusion technique under majority vote ensemble gives the highest classification performance. In addition, SVM outperformed other ML algorithms while CFS feature selection method surpassed other reduction techniques in improving classification performance and producing optimal feature sets for different models.


Tool Condition Monitoring; Machine Learning; Tool Fault; Tool Wear