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Publication Date



UM campus only

Degree Type

Doctoral Essay

Degree Name

Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA)


Vocal Performance (Music)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

David Alt

Second Committee Member

Robert Gower

Third Committee Member

Esther Jane Hardenbergh

Fourth Committee Member

Nobleza Pilar


The purpose of this study was to examine and provide a pedagogical content analysis of the published songs of Karl Goldmark (1830-1915), an Austrian composer from the Romantic Era. The songs' characteristics were evaluated to determine the level of singer for which they would be appropriate. The creation of an annotation format was devised for the analysis of each song including the areas of subject matter, difficulty level, range, tessitura, tempo indication, duration, and unique characteristics of the vocal line and the piano line. The detailed entries provide an easy and accurate evaluation of the individual songs in order for the voice teacher to assess their value for each student, with particular attention to their suitability for the beginning, intermediate and advanced singer. These levels generally correspond to freshman or sophomore, junior or senior, and graduate student, respectively. The results indicate a division of difficulty level among all of the songs, with moderate difficulty being the most common. It has also been concluded that there are valuable songs for all levels of student. Areas for further study are included.


Repertoire Selection; Graded Difficulty; Classification; Song Annotation