Publication Date



Open access

Embargo Period


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Music (MM)


Music Education and Music Therapy (Music)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Edward P. Asmus

Second Committee Member

Margaret A. Donaghue

Third Committee Member

Stephen F. Zdzinski


This research sought to find a relationship between parental verbal and nonverbal cues and children's focused listening skill. The data collection took place in February 2012 with children participating in the University of Miami MusicTime 3 program who were four to six years of age. Seventy-four children and parents participated in the study. A review of the literature established the basis for the theory that various types of parental cues and time enrolled in this music program could positively effect a child's focused listening skill. A child's focused listening checklist and verbal vs. nonverbal parental cue scale were devised to rate each child and parent videotaped during a MusicTime duple meter pattern activity. Results showed that neither, parental cues, teacher cues or time enrolled in the program showed an effect on children's focused listening skills.


Verbal versus nonverbal cues; children's focused listening; effect of parent cues on listening; effect of verbal versus nonverbal cues on listening; effect of cues on listening