Publication Date




Embargo Period


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

Date of Defense


First Committee Member

Kristin Lindahl

Second Committee Member

Brian Doss

Third Committee Member

Neena Malik


Parental variables have not been widely studied in relation to LGB youth outcomes, and they have not been examined using observational methods. Additionally, no studies have examined parental ambivalence toward LGB youth sexual orientation. Thus, this study aimed to establish the reliability and validity of a new observational coding system that examined parental acceptance, emotional support, and ambivalence. Additionally, this study examined the impact of these parental variables on LGB youth internalizing and externalizing problems, substance use problem severity, and LGB negative identity, and whether self-reported family cohesion was a protective factor for LGB youth. Participants included 36 LGB parent-youth dyads at baseline, and out of those, 27 completed the 2 year follow-up. Results provided support for the reliability and validity of the SCIFF-LGB. Additionally, parental acceptance of sexual orientation at baseline was inversely related to LGB youth externalizing symptoms two years later, and parental emotional support was inversely related to LGB youth internalizing symptoms and substance use problem severity; however, there were no associations with LGB negative identity. Parental ambivalence was not related to youth adjustment. Finally, family cohesion moderated the relationship between parental acceptance and LGB youth internalizing problems. The results of this study have implications for interventions targeting LGB youth and their parents.


LGB youth; parent acceptance; parent support; parent ambivalence; family cohesion