Following Nagaoka, the ground state of the large-U nearly half-filled Hubbard model is ‘‘ferromagnetic.’’ However, because of the anisotropic exchange energy JA, the physical Nagaoka ground state is nondegenerate and comprises a totally disordered spin state, i.e., a linear combination of all possible spin arrangements. For this ground state the susceptibility is Pauli-like but of a magnitude associated with a narrow band of width ∼JA while the holons, i.e., the charge excitations, correspond to spinless fermions with a band of width 2zt. Associated with the spinon sector are very poorly defined spin waves, i.e., bosons, with a quadratic dispersion relation. These spin waves do not become soft at any finite temperature, rather, they soften as they approach the metal-insulator transition, i.e., as the number of holes n0 becomes small. Examined is the problem of constructing a mean-field slave-boson approach for the present problem.
Barnes, S. E., "Spin-Disordered Ground State For A Nearly Half-Filled Hubbard Model" (1990). Physics Articles and Papers. 70.